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Patronat medialny "Krytycznym okiem"

2011-01-31

"Mężczyzna o twarzy mordercy" Matti Rönkä

Zadziwia mnie fenomen skandynawskiej literatury kryminalnej, z którą nie mam częstego kontaktu, ale do której zwykle sięgam chętnie. Kraje o niskim wskaźniku przestępczości to jednocześnie miejsca, gdzie kryminały pisze i wydaje się wręcz masowo. Norwegowie mają Karin Fossum, Islandczycy Yrsę Sigurðardóttir, Szwedzi Henninga Mankela, Stiega Larssona czy promowanego przez Wydawnictwo Czarne Thomasa Kangera. Czy w świadomości polskiego czytelnika skandynawskich kryminałów zapisze się jeszcze kolejne - tym razem fińskie - nazwisko, skoro i Finlandia tego typu literaturą może się pochwalić (mam na myśli Leenę Lehtolainen)? Myślę że tak. Matti Rönkä jest autorem trzech powieści kryminalnych, a polski czytelnik ma okazję poznać przekład wydanej przed dziewięcioma laty historii o intrygującym tytule „Mężczyzna o twarzy mordercy”.

Rys fabularny jedynie szkicuję, albowiem Rönkä operuje kalkami zarówno w sferze fabularnej jak i kompozycyjnej, wykorzystanymi już przed nim przez wielu twórców. On, zagadkowy i odstający od świata, który go otacza. Męski, chwilami cyniczny, w gruncie rzeczy maskujący swą wrażliwość. Ona tutaj w dwóch wersjach – jako pewien fantazmat w postaci zaginionej Sirje, której odnalezienie zleca bohaterowi jej mąż, i jako kobieta z krwi i kości, taka bliska i rozumiejąca, bezpieczna i godna zaufania, naturalnie obiekt jego westchnień. Tym razem jest to studentka Marja, ale to nie o kobietach ten tekst, a o nim, tytułowym mężczyźnie, nieustraszonym i inteligentnym detektywie, który poznaje tajniki coraz bardziej niejasnej sprawy związanej z zaginięciem Sirje.

Matti Rönkä tworzy bohatera bez korzeni, bez ojczyzny, rozdartego wewnętrznie i zagubionego. Jednocześnie bacznego obserwatora tego, jak z życiem radzą sobie rosyjscy emigranci w Finlandii i fińscy repatrianci w Rosji. Główny bohater tej książki, Viktor, jest mężczyzną, który czuje z jednej strony silny związek z Finlandią; z drugiej jednak bliskość rosyjskiej Karelii, gdzie żyje jego matka, z którą wiążą syna silne więzi emocjonalne. Gornostajew czy Kärppä? Fin czy Rosjanin? Przecież Viktor niesie w sobie traumatyczną przeszłość zza wschodniej granicy, czując jednocześnie silną więź emocjonalną z Finlandią, a zwłaszcza z jej stolicą, po której narracja tej książki prowadzi nas z topograficzną dokładnością. Problemy tożsamościowe głównego bohatera rzutują u Rönki także na zdarzenia, w jakich uczestniczy Viktor, próbując zbadać, kto i dlaczego mógł uprowadzić Sirje. Kryminalna przeszłość jej brata to jedynie czubek góry lodowej, bo wokół Viktora, wciąż lawirującego na granicy prawa, znajdą się różni ludzie wpływający nie tylko na jego decyzje, ale przede wszystkim podkreślający trudność w określeniu granicy rozdzielającej zdarzenia w tej historii.

Granica przekraczana jest w sensie dosłownym wielokrotnie. Akcja toczy się w Finlandii, w Rosji (z jakże żywym wspomnieniem Związku Radzieckiego), w Estonii. Symbolicznie granice własnego poznania przekracza nie tylko Viktor. Jego działania idą w parze z reporterskim wręcz i myślę, że wiarygodnym ukazaniem stosunków panujących między Finami a przybyszami z rosyjskiej Karelii. Co zatem zasługuje na uwagę w przypadku „Mężczyzny o twarzy mordercy”? Nie sama kryminalna historia, chwilami odrobinę bez iskry i oryginalnych rozwiązań fabularnych. Przede wszystkim psychologiczny rys głównego bohatera, jego zmagań z samym sobą i trudami, jakie niesie pogodzenie swej rosyjskiej przeszłości z fińską teraźniejszością, w której znajduje się przecież miejsce na miłość, a więc i na pozytywne zmiany.

Matti Rönkä to specyficzna jakość. Mam wrażenie, że forma powieści kryminalnej jest dla autora tylko sposobem maskowania pewnych osobistych rozliczeń ze sobą, dramatyczną historią pogranicza fińsko-rosyjskiego i jest także głosem wszystkich tych, którzy wiecznie na tym pograniczu tkwią mimo jasno określonej przynależności narodowej w swych paszportach. Do refleksji nie tylko zwolennikom kryminału, ale przede wszystkim tym, dla których granica jest pojęciem bardzo wieloznacznym.

Wydawnictwo Czarne, 2011
KUP KSIĄŻKĘ

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